Human resources are among the most valuable sources of getting to the targets of any organization or system and are deemed as among the most prominent assets of any organization. Thus the better quality this asset has, the more probable success, prosperity and promotion the organization will enjoy (Tazhibi et al, 1389: 650). Job satisfaction is a combination of sensations and beliefs which people hold about their current job. Job satisfaction is one of the most important factors involved in job success, the factor which causes an increase in efficiency and self-satisfaction. It also guarantees physical and psychological health leading to life satisfaction which, in turn, causes a person to learn the job skills swiftly. Social happiness has also been discussed as an important offshoot of job satisfaction, which not only influences our personal life but also our social life including our interactions and communications with other people ( Van praag et al, 2004) Happiness or happiness is a word that includes such connotations as immediate pleasure, long term pleasure and pleasure of all life courses. This study is an attempt to assess the degree of job satisfaction, and social happiness among high school teachers in Jiroft, and to investigate the reciprocal relationships between job satisfaction and social happiness and to find their relationships between the variables of gender, marital status, field of instruction, level of income and educational level of the teachers.
Materials & Methods
This is a survey study. The population includes of all the high school teachers working in Giroft. According to Cochran’s formula and with the method of simple random sampling 105 participants (56 males and 49 females) were selected as the sample of the study.
Materials for data collection were Smith et al’s (1969) questionnaire on job satisfaction which included components of job satisfaction, headmaster satisfaction, satisfaction with the colleagues and satisfaction with the promotions and a questionnaire designed by the researcher on social happiness. All the questions posed in the instruments, except demographic characteristics, were according to a 5-point Likert scale.
For assessing the validity of the instrument of the study, questionnaires were given to professors of social sciences and after obtaining their comments the questionnaires were finalized (face validity). Also for assessing the reliability of the questionnaire, after conducting a pre-test on 30 teachers who were not among the sample participants, Cronbach was obtained to the levels of 0.92 and 0.76 for job satisfaction and social happiness respectively revealing a good level of reliability for the items. Finally statistical analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software version 19.
Discussion and Conclusion:
According to the findings of the research, 53.3% of the respondents were men while 46.7% were women. The range of the age of the participants was between 22 to 52 and their age mean was 36.1. 15.2% of them were single while the rest (84.8%) were married. 70.5 % of the teachers were teaching in the field of humanities and 29.5 % of them in experimental sciences. Also with regards to their educational level, 6.1 % of the respondents held AA degrees, 78.1 BA/BS degrees and 15.2 % were at master’s level. Also results of this study showed that degree of job satisfaction of teachers with a mean of 44.2% was less than average and the degree of their social happiness with the mean of 57% was above average. Also among different factors of job satisfaction, the factor of satisfaction of relationships with colleagues was the highest with the mean of 0.60 and satisfaction with the working environment with the mean of 44.3% received the lowest. The mean of the factor of satisfaction with the headmaster status was 56.44% and satisfaction with the status of the job having the mean of 51.54. Also satisfaction with the job promotions had a mean of 50.07. These pieces of information show that the relationships between colleagues and the headmaster among the teachers are more favorable compared with the working atmosphere, job status, and the promotion counterparts.
Other findings of this study indicated that the mean of job satisfaction and social happiness among females was significantly higher than males, which is in line with studies conducted by researchers like Clark 1997, Sloan and Williams 2000, VanPrag et al. 2003, Gazyuli and Tensel 2006. Among other findings of this study is that the mean of job satisfaction and social happiness is similar in single vs. married participants, which is incongruent with the studies of researchers like Birborn and Kaplovtis (1996) who have reported that married people have more happiness compared with the single ones. Mean of job satisfaction and social happiness of those who teach experimental sciences is almost similar to those who teach humanities. Also amount of job satisfaction and social happiness among teachers with different academic degrees turned out to be insignificantly different, which is against findings of researchers like Suza Puza (2003), Jones and Johnson (2009), Otto et al (1999), Villa et al (2005) regarding job satisfaction and Gevrin et al (1960) for social happiness.
Results of correlation relationships indicated that social happiness with all its factors of job satisfaction and also the general parameter of job satisfaction had a significantly positive and meaningful correlation, meaning that as the degree of satisfaction with the working environment, satisfaction with the job status, headmaster, job promotions and relation with colleagues and generally job satisfaction increases, the level of social happiness also increases, and vice versa. These results are directly and indirectly in line with the proposed theories in research like the two-factor theory of motivation-health of Herzberg, equity theory of Adams, and needs hierarchy theory of Maslow. Also results obtained from the regression analysis of data of all participants showed that, in sum, the two variable of social happiness and gender, consecutively, could predict 47.3 of changes in job satisfaction of which the variable of social happiness with the b=0.67 had a larger share in explaining changes of job satisfaction. Also regression analysis of social happiness reveals that the three variables of job status, relationships among the colleagues, and satisfaction with the status of the headmaster could explain 46.7 of changes in social happiness of the teachers, among which the variable of job satisfaction with b=0.38 had a larger share in explaining changes.
Based on the findings of this study following suggestions are made:
In order to provide more job satisfaction and accordingly more happiness among teachers, it is suggested that system of payment and giving bonus to be revisited in a way to enable them to satisfy their basic needs and primary sources of their living and to provide a base to satisfy higher order needs.
It is required to take actions in order to provide working atmospheres replete with senses of coordination and collaboration in educational and organizational settings in order to motivate teachers and to make positive changes in the attitude of colleagues which can lead to positive outlook and will activate them to work more and have an effective competition.
Since satisfaction with the headmaster has an important impact on social happiness of the teachers and thus their job satisfaction, it is necessary to exert utmost precision in selecting school principals and organization managers and to select those who benefit from scientific requirements as well as managerial capabilities and good manners.
Since the level of job satisfaction among male teachers was lower than females, it is required to think of methods to increase the job satisfaction of all teachers including men. In this vein, due to limitations in job opportunities and bonuses, it is required to satisfy and fulfill their job expectations in an acceptable manner based on the resources available.
Argyle, M, (2001). The psychology of happiness. London, Rutledge.
Argyle, M., Martin, M., and Lu, L. (1999). Testing for stress and happiness: The role of social and cognitive factors. In C. D. Silberberg & I. Sarasin (Eds.), Stress and emotion (Washington: Taylor: 173-187).
Atkinson, C. and Hall, L. (2011), “Flexible working and happiness in the NHS”, Employee Relations, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 374-86.
Azkampt, Stewart (1998) Social applied Psychology (translated by: Farhad Maher), Mashhad: Astan Ghods Razavi.
Alvani, Sayed Mahdi. (1997). Publice Administration, Tehran: Ney Publication.
Amirnezad, GHanbar & Mohsennasab, Mohammadnasab (2008)A Study of relationship of Personality and Job Satisfaction in high schools teachers of Behbahan City in education year 85-86, Review Education, No (2) 2, P: 75-99.
Bartel A. P., (1981), Race differences in job satisfaction: a reappraisal, Journal of Human Resources, 16, 294-303.
Bjork, I. T, Samdal, G. B, Hansen, B. S, Torstad, S & Hamilton, G. A, (2007). Job Satisfaction in a Norwegian Population of Nurses, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44, PP: 747–757.
Blanchflower D.G. and Oswald A.J. (2005), “Happiness and the Human Development Index: the Paradox of Australia”, National Bureau of Economic Research NBER working papers, 11416.
Booth A. L., van Ours J. C., (2008), Job satisfaction and family happiness:the part-time work puzzle, Economic Journal, 118, F77-F99.
Bradburn, N., and Caplovitz, D. ( 1965). Reports on Happiness. Chicago:Aldine,.
Buxton. B.P and et al. (1992). “Motivational congruency and discrepancy between certified athletic trainers and noncertified student athletic trainers in the state of Harvey”. Journal of athletic 24 training.
Bakhtyarnasrabadi, Hassanali & Bahrami, Sousan (2010) A Study of Happiness factors in Steel Factory and relation of it to progressive of productivity. WWW.Esfahansteel.com/ admin/articles/ Productivity.
Chen, L, (2007). Job Satisfaction among Information System (IS) Personnel, Computers in Human Behavior, 1, PP, 1-14.
Clark A.E. (1997), “Job Satisfaction and Gender: Why are Women so Happy at Work?” LabourEconomics, 61, pp.359-381.
Clark A.E. and Oswald A.J. (1996), “Satisfaction and Comparison Income”, Journal of PublicEconomics, n.61, vol.6, pp. 359-381
Dockery A.M. (2005), “The Happiness of Young Australians: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Education Economics, v. 13, iss. 4, pp. 409-25
Faisal Hasan and Md. Aktaruzzaman and Prof. Dr. Che Kum Clement. (2011).Job satisfaction among teachers of technical training centers (T.T.Cs.) in Bangladesh. Academic Research International PP: 375-382.
Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, et al. (1995). Health effects of anticipation of job change. And non-employment: Longitudinal data from theWhitehall II study.
Gaziougly S., Tansel A., (2006), Job satisfaction in Britain: individual and job related factors, Applied Economics, 38, 1163-1171.
Ghinetti P., (2007), the public-private job satisfaction differential in Italy, Labour, 21, 361-388.
Gurin, G., Veroff, J., and Feld, S. ( 1960). Americans View of Their Mental Health. New York: Basic Books.
Garoosi, S & et al (2007) Study Impact of Influence Factors on Job Satisfaction and Probability of Job Promotion among employed Women of Kerman City, Journal of Motaleat zanan, No 3, P: 1-24.
Herzberg, F. 2 Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory. Source: http://www.accelteam. com/human_relations/hrels_05_herzberg.html (11 November 2007).
Hill Malcolm O. (1997). “A theatrical analysis of faculty Job satisfaction / dissatisfaction: Education “Research Quarterly.
Iyzink, Maykel (1990) Be Happy all the time (translated by: Zahra Chelongar), Tehran: Nsle no andish Publication.
Jones Johnson G., Johnson W.R. (2004). Perceived over qualification and dimensions of job Satisfaction: a longitudinal analysis, Journal of Psychology, 34, 537-556.
Jones R.J., Sloane P., (2009). Regional differences in job satisfaction, Applied Economics, 41, 1019-1041.
Jahanian, Ramezan (1995) Study of Teachers' Job Satisfaction based on Herzberg theory in the schools of Damghan City, MA Dissertation.
Jahromi, Shayan & Shapoor, Amin (2009) the relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment with Job Satisfaction among teachers' schools exceptional of BandarAbas Providence. Social Educational, 2 year, No 5, P: 7-33.
Karimzade, M (1999) Management of Organizational Commitment, Publication of Management Association of Iran, No 39.
Lambert, E.G., Hogan, N.L., Barton, A., & Lubbock, S.M. (2001). The impact of job satisfaction on turnover intent A test of a structural measurement model using a national sample of workers, Social Science Journal, 38 (2), 233-251.
Loscocco, K.A. (1990). Reactions to blue-collar work: A comparison of women and men. Work & Occupations, 17, 152-178.
Lowson, R. B, Shen, Z, (1998). Organizational Psychology, Foundations and Applications, Oxford,
Luthans, F, (2002). Organizational Behavior, New York, McGraw Hill.
Lal sajadi, M (2010) Study of Relationship of Social Capital and Job Satisfaction among Teachers' Mashad City, MA Dissertation, Yazd University, Department of Social Sciences.
Maslow, A. Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper, 1954.
Pedersen P. J., Schmidt T. D., (2010), Happiness in Europe. Cross-country differences in the determinants of satisfaction with main activity, Journal of Socio-Economics, doi:10.1016/j.socec.2010.10.004.
Naeli, M (1994) Motivation in the Organizations, Ahvaz, Publication of Shahid cha mran University of Ahvaz.
Noorbakhsh, M (1997) Study the Board of scientific' Occupational Motivation of PhysicalColleges in all of the country, MA Dissertation of Tehran University.
Pettit John, Gorisjose, Vaught Bobby. (1998). “An examination of organizational communication as Moderator of the Relationship between Job Performance and Job Sates faction” approach, Oxford University Press.
Pollnac, R.B. and J.J. Poggie. 2008. Happiness, Well-being and Psychocultural Adaptation to the Stresses Associated with Marine Fishing. Human Ecology Review 15, 2, 194-200.
Poorrahimi, Soraya (2011) the Impact of Social Capital on the Job Satisfaction, MA Dissertation, Payamnoor University of Tehran.
Poorsamad, H (1993) Study of Teachers 'Occupational Motivation of Kohkilooye City, MA Dissertation.
Robbiens, Stephine (1998) Organizational Behavior (Translated by A, Persian & M,Arabi) Vol 1, Tehran: Office of cultural researches.
Rezaeian, A (1995) Organizational Behavior Administration, Publication of Tehran University.
Schwochau S. (1987), “:::union::: Effects on Job Attitudes”, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 40, pp.209-224.
Sloane P. J., Williams H., (2000), Job satisfaction, comparison earnings and gender, Labour, 14,473-501.
Smithson J, Lewis S. (2000). Is job insecurity changing the psychological contract? Personnel Review. 29, 680 – 698.
Sousa-Poza, A. and Sousa-Poza, A. A. (2003), “Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction in GreatBritain, 1991-2000: Permanent or Transitory?” Applied Economics Letters, v. 10, iss. 11, pp.691-94
Saatchi, M (1990) Physiology in the work, Management and Organization, Center of Governmental Management of Education.
Shojaei far, Habibollah (2000) the relationship of Managers' Job Satisfaction of College with Organizational Commitment in Ferdosi University of Mashad, MA Dissertation, Department of Social Educational of Ferdosi University of Mashad.
Tazhibi, Mahdi and Zardooeigolanbari, Shirin (2011) Study of Job Satisfaction of Medical Records Staff in Kermanshah Medical Education Center. Winter 7 ((Special Issue)): 649-657.
Van Praag B. and Ferrer-I-Carbonell A. (2004), Happiness quantified: A satisfaction calculus approach, Oxford University Press.
Vila L. and Garcia-Mora B. (2005), “Education and the Determinants of Job Satisfaction”, EducationEconomics, 4, 409-425.
Yazdi, S.M & et al (2010) The Interactive Effect between dimension of Occupational Psycho Pressure and Managers' Job Satisfaction, Physiological Sciences, No 2, serial 6.
Zohoor, AR & Fekri, AR (2003) Students' Happiness of School of Management and Medical Information Sciences Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Armaghane Danesh, 8 year, No 30.